7 October 2021 (MIA)
3761 BC – The epoch reference date epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar (Proleptic Julian calendar).
1406 – French troops comprising 1,000 men at arms landed on Jersey and fought a battle against 3,000 defenders.
1477 – Uppsala University is inaugurated after receiving its corporate rights from Pope Sixtus IV in February the same year.
1513 – Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramón de Cardona defeat the Venetians.
1542 – Explorer Cabrillo discovers Santa Catalina Island off of the California coast.
1571 – The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Holy League (Spain and Italy) annihilates the Turkish fleet.
1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1691 – The English royal charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued.
1763 – King George III of the United Kingdom issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlements.
1776 – Crown Prince Paul of Russia marries Sophie Marie Dorothea of Württemberg.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: The Americans defeat the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights.
1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Kings Mountain: American Patriot militia defeat Loyalist irregulars led by British major Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina.
1800 – French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent inspiring the traditional French song Le Trente-et-un du mois d’août.
1826 – The Granite Railway begins operations as the first chartered railway in the U.S.
1828 – Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese under General Maison.
1840 – Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands.
1862 – Royal Columbian Hospital (RCH) opens as the first hospital in the Canadian province of British Columbia
1864 – American Civil War: Bahia incident: USS Wachusett illegally captures the CSS Florida Confederate raider while in port in Bahia, Brazil in violation of Brazilian neutrality.
1868 – Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the highest at any American university to that date.
1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Siege of Paris: Léon Gambetta flees Paris in a hot-air balloon.
1879 – Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the “Twofold Covenant” and create the Dual Alliance.
1904 – Macedonian historian Dimitar Canko dies. He is credited with playing a significant role in building the historical continuity of the Macedonian cultural tradition in southeastern Albania.
1910 – Georgi Abadziev, considered one of the most prolific novelists in Macedonia, is born in Dojran. His most famous books include The Sunrise, Epopee of the Knife, The Last Meeting, The Desert, etc.
1912 – The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.
1916 – Georgia Tech defeats Cumberland University 222–0 in the most lopsided college football game in American history.
1918 – The Regency Council of the Kingdom of Poland declares independence from the German Empire and forms the Republic of Poland.
1919 – KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.
1924 – Andreas Michalakopoulos becomes Prime Minister of Greece for a short period of time.
1929 – Photios II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
1933 – Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of 5 French airlines.
1940 – World War II: The McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States.
1942 – World War II: The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River.
1944 – World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down Crematorium IV.
1949 – The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed.
1950 – Mother Teresa establishes the Missionaries of Charity.
1955 – American poet Allen Ginsberg performs his poem Howl for the first time at the Six Gallery in San Francisco.
1958 – President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza, with the support of General Ayub Khan and the army, suspends the 1956 constitution, imposes martial law, and cancels the elections scheduled for January 1959.
1958 – The U.S. manned space-flight project is renamed Project Mercury.
1959 – U.S.S.R. probe Luna 3 transmits the first ever photographs of the far side of the Moon.
1963 – John F. Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Test Ban Treaty.
1976 – Hua Guofeng becomes Mao Zedong’s successor as chairman of Communist Party of China, following the latter’s death barely a month earlier.
1977 – The adoption of the Fourth Soviet Constitution.
1985 – The Achille Lauro is hijacked by Palestine Liberation Front.
1985 – The Mameyes landslide kills close to 300 in the worst landslide in North American history.
1987 – Sikh nationalists declares the independence of Khalistan from India; it is not internationally recognized.
1988 – An Inupiat hunter discovers three gray whales trapped under the ice in Barrow, Alaska, US; the situation becomes a multinational effort to free the whales.
1993 – The flood of ’93 ends at St. Louis, Missouri, 103 days after it began, as the Mississippi River falls below flood stage.
1993 – The Agency of the Republic of Macedonia for Transformation of Enterprises with Social Capital is established.
1996 – The Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.
1998 – Matthew Shepard, a gay student at the University of Wyoming, is found tied to a fence after being savagely beaten by two young adults in Laramie, Wyoming.
2001 – The Global War on Terrorism begins as a result of the September 11 attacks. The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan initiates with an air assault and covert operations on the ground.
2003 – The governor of California, Gray Davis, is recalled in favor of Arnold Schwarzenegger.
2008 – Asteroid 2008 TC3 impacts the Earth over Sudan.
2013 – A three-man crew successfully blasted off into space with the Olympic torch, ready to take it on its first space walk in what they said would be a “spectacular” showcase for the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi.