13 September 2021 (MIA)
1229 – Ögedei Khan is proclaimed Khagan of the Mongol Empire in Kodoe Aral, Khentii: Mongolia.
1437 – Battle of Tangier: a Portuguese expeditionary force initiates a failed attempt to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier.
1501 – Michelangelo begins work on his statue of David.
1504 – Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand issue a Royal Warrant for the construction of a Royal Chapel (Capilla Real) to be built.
1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin returns to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine known as Calvinism.
1584 – San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid is finished.
1609 – Henry Hudson reaches the river that would later be named after him – the Hudson River.
1743 – Great Britain, Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia sign the Treaty of Worms.
1759 – Battle of the Plains of Abraham: the British defeat the French near Quebec City in the Seven Years’ War, known in the United States as the French and Indian War.
1782 – American Revolutionary War: Franco-Spanish troops launch the unsuccessful “grand assault” during the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
1788 – The Philadelphia Convention sets the date for the first presidential election in the United States, and New York City becomes the country’s temporary capital.
1791 – King Louis XVI of France accepts the new constitution.
1808 – Finnish War: In the Battle of Jutas, Swedish forces under Lieutenant General Georg Carl von Döbeln beat the Russians, making von Döbeln a Swedish war hero.
1812 – War of 1812: A supply wagon sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows.
1843 – The Greek Army rebels (OS date: September 3) against the autocratic rule of king Otto of Greece, demanding the granting of a constitution.
1847 – Mexican–American War: Six teenage military cadets known as Niños Héroes die defending Chapultepec Castle in the Battle of Chapultepec. American troops under General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City in the Mexican–American War.
1850 – First ascent of Piz Bernina, the highest summit of the eastern Alps.
1862 – American Civil War: Union soldiers find a copy of Robert E. Lee’s battle plans in a field outside Frederick, Maryland. It is the prelude to the Battle of Antietam.
1882 – Anglo-Egyptian War: The Battle of Tel el-Kebir is fought.
1900 – Filipino resistance fighters defeat a small American column in the Battle of Pulang Lupa, during the Philippine–American War.
1906 – First flight of a fixed-wing aircraft in Europe.
1914 – World War I: South African troops open hostilities in German south-west Africa (Namibia) with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station.
1914 – World War I: The Battle of Aisne begins between Germany and France.
1922 – The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences.
1923 – Following a military coup in Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera takes over, setting up a dictatorship.
1924 – Vlado Chernozemski kills Dimo Hadzi Dimov, considered one of the ideologists of the Macedonian national liberation movement, in Sofia. Hadzi Dimov participated in the battle of Banica on 4 May 1903 when Goce Delcev was killed. After the Ilinden Uprising was crushed, he was on the left wing side of TMORO. He was born in the village Gorno Brodi, Aegean Macedonia on 20 October 1875.
1933 – Elizabeth McCombs becomes the first woman elected to the New Zealand Parliament.
1942 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of Edson’s Ridge in the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines successfully defeated attacks by the Imperial Japanese Army with heavy losses for the Japanese forces.
1943 – The Municipal Theatre of Corfu is destroyed during an aerial bombardment by Luftwaffe.
1948 – Deputy Primer Minister of India Vallabhbhai Patel ordered the Army to move into the Hyderabad to integrate it with Indian Union.
1948 – Margaret Chase Smith is elected senator, and becomes the first woman to serve in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate.
1953 – Nikita Khrushchev is appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1956 – The IBM 305 RAMAC is introduced, the first commercial computer to use disk storage.
1964 – South Vietnamese Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức fail in a coup attempt against General Nguyễn Khánh.
1968 – Albania leaves the Warsaw Pact.
1971 – State police and National Guardsmen storm New York’s Attica Prison to quell a prison revolt.
1971 – Chairman Mao Zedong’s second in command and successor Marshal Lin Biao flees the People’s Republic of China after the failure of an alleged coup. His plane crashes in Mongolia, killing all aboard.
1979 – South Africa grants independence to the “homeland” of Venda (not recognised outside South Africa).
1985 – Super Mario Bros. is released in Japan for the NES, which starts the Super Mario series of platforming games.
1987 – Goiânia accident: A radioactive object is stolen from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, Brazil, contaminating many people in the following weeks and causing some to die from radiation poisoning.
1988 – Hurricane Gilbert is the strongest recorded hurricane in the Western Hemisphere, later replaced by Hurricane Wilma in 2005 (based on barometric pressure).
1989 – Sterijo Spase, Albanian writer of Macedonian descent, dies in Tirana. He was born in village Globocica in 1914.
1989 – Largest anti-Apartheid march in South Africa, led by Desmond Tutu.
1993 – Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin shakes hands with Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat at the White House after signing the Oslo Accords granting limited Palestinian autonomy.
1994 – Ulysses probe passes the Sun’s south pole.
1995 – The Republic of Macedonia and the United States establish diplomatic relations.
1995 – The foreign ministers of Macedonia and Greece, Stevo Crvenkovski and Karolos Papoulias respectively, sign an interim agreement on friendship and confidence building between the countries.
2001 – Civilian aircraft traffic resumes in the United States after the September 11 attacks.
2006 – Kimveer Gill kills one student and injures 19 more in the Dawson College shooting.
2007 – The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.
2008 – Delhi, India, is hit by a series of bomb blasts, resulting in 30 deaths and 130 injuries.
2008 – Hurricane Ike makes landfall on the Texas Gulf Coast of the United States, causing heavy damage to Galveston Island, Houston and surrounding areas.
2013 – Taliban insurgents attack the United States consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, with two members of the Afghan National Police reported dead and about 20 civilians injured.